22.1 EDTA chelation therapy

Bibliografia a cura di Stephen F. Olmstead, M.D.
Clinical Assistano Professor of Medicine Division of Cardiology
University of Washinton School of Medicine
Funded in part by a grant from the A.C.A.M.
American College for the Advancement of Medicine 


Ahrens FA and Aronson AL: A comparative study of the toxic effects of calcium and chromium chelates of ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the dog. Toxic Appl Pharmac 18:10, 1971.

Ahrens FA and Aronson AL: Toxicity of calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in dogs. Fed Proc Fedn Am Soc Exp Biol 27:1401, 1968.

Angle CR and McIntire MS: Lead poisoning during pregnancy. Fetal tolerance of calcium disodium edetate . Am J Dis Child 108:436, 1964.

Aronov DM: First experience with the treatment of atherosclerosis patients with calcinosis of the arteries with Trilon B (disodium salt of EDTA) Klin Med (Moskva) 41:19-23, 1963.

Aronson AL and Ahrens FA: The mechanism of renal transport and excretion of ethylenediaminetetraacetate with interspecies comparison. Toxic Appl Pharmac 18:1, 1971.

Aronson AL and Hammond PB: Effect of two chelating agents on the distribution and excretion of lead. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 146:241-251, 1964.

Aronson AL, Hammond PB and Strafuss AC: Studies with calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in calves; toxicity and use in bovine lead poisoning. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 12:337-349, 1968.


Batchelor TM, McCall M and Mosher RM: Potassium dieresis induced by edathamil disodium. JAMA 187:305, 1964.

Bates GW, Billups C and Saltman P: The kinetics and mechanism of iron (III) exchange between chelates and transferrin. II. The presentation and removal with ethylenediaminetetraacetate. J Biol Chem 242:2816, 1967.

Bauer RO, Rullo FR, Spooner C and Woodman E: Acute and subacute toxicity of ethylene diamine tetraacetic (EDTA) salts. Fed Proceed 2:321, 1952.

Bechtel JT, White JE and Estes EH Jr: The electrocardiographic effects of hypocalcemia induced in normal subjects with edathamil disodium. Circulation 13:837, 1956.

Berkman N, Michaeli Y, Or R and Eldor A: EDTA dependent pseudothrombocytopenia: a clinical study of 18 patients and a review of the literature. Am J Hematol 36:195, 1991.

Bessman SP, Ried H and Rubin M: Treatment of lead encephalopathy with calcium disodium versenate. Ann Med Soc DC 21:312, 1952.

Birk RE and Rupe CE: The treatment of systemic sclerosis with disodium EDTA, pyridoxine and reserpine. Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull 14:109, 1966.

Birk RE and Rupe CE: Systemic sclerosis. Fourteen cases treated with chelation (disodium EDTA) and/or pyridoxine, with comments on the possible role of altered tryptophan metabolism in pathogenesis. Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull 10:523, 1962.

Blumer W and Cranton EM: Ninety percent reduction in cancer mortality after chelation therapy with EDTA. J Adv Med 2:183 1989.

Bolick LE and Blankenhor, DH: A quantitative study of coronary arterial calcification. Am J Path 39:511, 1961.

Boyle AJ, Jasper JJ, McCormick H, et al: Studies in human and induced atherosclerosis employing – (EDTA). Bull Swiss Acad Med Sci 13:408, 1957.

Boyle AJ, Clark NE, Mosher RE and McCann DS: Chelation therapy in circulatory and sclerosing diseases. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):243, 1961.

Boyle AJ, Mosher RE and McCann DS: Some in vivo effects of chelation. I. Rheumatoid arthritis. J Chron Dis 16:325, 1963.

Brien TG and Fay JA: 51Cr-EDTA biological half life as an index of renal function. (Letters) J Nucl Med 13:339, 1972.

Brecher A: Bye-Bye Bypass: The Truth About Chelation Therapy. Troup, Texas, Health Savers Press, 1989.

Brucknerova O and Malinovska V: First clinical experience with combined treatment with chelation III and glucagon in ischemic disease of the lower extremities. Cas Lek Cas 119:814, 1980.

Brucknerova O, Tulacek J and Krojzl O: Chelates in the treatment of obliterating arteriopathies. Vnitrni Lek 14:841, 1968.

Brucknerova O and Tulacek J: Chelates in the treatment of occlusive arteriosclerosis. Vnitrni Lek 18:729, 1972.

Brugsch HG: Fatal nephropathy during edathamil therapy in lead poisoning. AMA Arch Indust Health 20:285, 1959.


Calcium disodium edetate and disodium edetate. Drugs for human use; drug efficacy study implementation. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Food and Drug Administration. Federal Registrar 35 F.R. 437, 1970.

Casdorph HR: EDTA chelation therapy – efficacy in arteriosclerotic heart disease. J Holistic Med 3:53, 1981.

Casdorph HR: EDTA chelation therapy. II. Efficacy in brain disorders J Holistic Med 3:101, 1981.

Casdorph HR: Chelation therapy: a reappraisal. N Z Med J 66, 1983.

Casdorph HR and Farr CH: EDTA chelation therapy III: treatment of peripheral arterial occlusion, an alternative to amputation. J Holistic Med 5:3, 1983.

Cashion WR Jr: What about chelation? Texas Medicine 80:6, 1984.

Castellino N and Aloj S: Effects of calcium sodium ethylenediaminetetra-acetate on the kinetics of the distribution and excretion of lead in the rat. Brit J Indust Med 22:172,

Catsch A: Radioactive metal mobilization. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):206, 1961.

Chaitlow L: Chelation Therapy: The Revolutionary Alternative to Heart Surgery. San Francisco, Thorsons SF, 1991.

Chantler C and Barratt TM: Estimation of glomerular filtration rate from plasma clearance of 51-chromium edetic acid. Arch Dis Child 47:613, 1972.

Chantler C, Garnett ES, Parsons V and Veall N: Glomerular filtration rate measurement in man by the single injection method using 51Cr-EDTA. Clin Sci 37:169, 1969.

Chappell LT and Stahl JP: The correlation between EDTA chelation therapy and improvement in cardiovascular function: a meta-analysis. J Adv Med 6:139, 1993.

Chappell LT: Chelation therapy, smoking and health care costs (Letter). J Adv Med 7:107, 1994.

Chappell LT: EDTA chelation therapy should be more commonly used in the treatment of vascular disease. Alternative Therapies Health Med 1:53, 1995.

Chappell LT, Miranda R, Rubin M, Carter JP and Trowbridge J: Chelation therapy (Letter). Circulation 92:1350, 1995.

Chelation therapy (Diagnostic and therapeutic technology assessment). JAMA 250:672, 1983.

Chelation therapy. Resolution: 66 (I-84). AMA House of Delegates. 1984.

Chelation therapy. Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. Report F (I-84). AMA House of Delegates. 1984.

Chelation therapy – An informal summary. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Bethesda, Maryland. June 1992.

Chelation therapy: a second look. The Harvard Medical School Health Letter IX:1, 1984.

Chelation Therapy Clinic: Chelation Therapy – The Treatment of Choice for Relief From and Prevention of, Cardiovascular and Age-Related Diseases. Auckland, New Zealand, The Chelation Therapy Clinic, 1987.

Chen IW, Park HM, King LR, Bahr GK and Goldsmith RE: Radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone: peripheral plasma immunoreactive parathyroid hormone response to ethylenediaminetetraacetate. J Nucl Med 15:763, 1974.

Chisolm JJ Jr: Chelation therapy in children with subclinical plumbism. Pediatrics 53:441, 1974.

Chisolm JJ Jr: The use of chelating agents in the treatment of acute and chronic lead intoxication in childhood. J Pediat 73:1, 1968.

Clark NE Sr, Atherosclerosis, occlusive vascular disease and EDTA. (Ed) Am J Cardiol 6:233, 1960.

Clarke NE, Clarke CN, Mosher RE: The "in vivo" dissolution of metastatic calcium. An approach to atherosclerosis. Am J Med Sci 229:142, 1955.

Clarke NE, Clarke CN, Mosher RE: Treatment of angina pectoris with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Am J Med Sci 232:654, 1956.

Clarke NE Sr, Clarke NE Jr, Mosher RE: Treatment of occlusive vascular disease with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) Am J Med Sci, 239:732, 1960.

Clarke NE, Clarke CN, Mosher RE: The "in-vivo" dissolution of metastatic calcium: an approach to atherosclerosis. Am J Med Sci 229:142, 1955.

Clarke NE Sr: Atherosclerosis, occlusive vascular disease and EDTA. Am J Cardiol 6:233, 1960.

Cohen S, Weissler AM and Schoenfeld CD: Antagonism of the contractile effect of digitalis by EDTA in the normal human ventricle. Am Heart J 69:502, 1965.

Conti CR: Chelation therapy for atherosclerosis: one man’s view. Clin Cardiol 18:545, 1995.

Couric JM: Chelation therapy overdone. FDA Consumer 16:28. 1982.

Cranton EM and Brecher A: Bypassing Bypass: The New Technique of Chelation Therapy. New York, Stein and Day, 1990.

Cranton EM: Kidney effects of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA): A literature review. J Holistic Med 4:152, 1982.

Cranton EM: The current status of EDTA chelation therapy. J Holistic Med 7:3, 1985.

Cranton EM: Protocol of the American College of Advancement in Medicine for the safe and effective administration of EDTA chelation therapy. J Adv Med 2:269, 1989.

Cranton EM: A textbook on EDTA chelation therapy. J Adv Med 2:1-416, 1989.

Cranton EM and Frackelton JP: Current status of EDTA chelation therapy in occlusive arterial disease. J Holistic Med 1:24, 1982.

Cranton EM and Frackelton JP: Free radical pathology in age-associated diseases: treatment with EDTA chelation, nutrition and antioxidants. J Holistic Med 6:6, 1984.

Cranton EM and Frackelton JP: Negative Danish study of EDTA chelation biased (Letter). Townsend Letter Doctors. July, 604-605, 1992.

Craven PC and Morrelli HF: Chelation therapy. West J Med 122:277, 1975.

Curran CL: Metal chelating agents and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Proc Soc Exper Biol & Med 88:101, 1955.


Darwish NM and Kratzer FH: Metabolism of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) by chickens. J Nutr 86:187, 1965.

Davis FA, Becker FO, Michael JA and Sorensen E: Effect of intravenous sodium bicarbonate disodium EDTA and hyperventilation on visual and oculomotor signs in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neuro-surg Psychiat 33:723, 1970.

Davis PS and Deller DJ: Effect of orally administered chelating agents EDTA, DTPA and fructose on radioiron absorption in man. Aust Ann Med 16:70, 1967.

Davis H and Moe PJ: Favorable response of calcinosis universalis to edathamil disodium. Pediatriacs 24:780, 1959.

Deucher DP: EDTA chelation therapy: an antioxidant strategy. J Adv Med 1:182, 1988.

Diagnostic and therapeutic technology assessment; chelation therapy. JAMA 250:672, 1983.

Donald GF, Hunter GA, Roman W and Taylor AEJ: Current concepts of cutaneous porphyria and its treatment with particular reference to the use of sodium calcium-edetate. Brit J Derm 82:70, 1970.

Donsbach KW: Chelation Therapy; Has the Plug Been Pulled on Our Biggest Killer? Huntington Beach, CA, International Institute of Health, 1981.

Doolan PD, Schwartz SL, Hayes JR, Mullen JC and Cummings NB: An evaluation of the nephrotoxicity of ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 10:481, 1967.

Dudley HR, Ritchie AC, Schilling A and Baker WH: Pathologic changes associated with the use of sodium ethylene diamine tetra-acetate in the treatment of hypercalcemia. N Eng J Med 252:331, 1955.


EDTA chelation therapy for arteriosclerotic heart disease. Medical Letter 23:51 l981.

EDTA chelation: a rebuttal. J Adv Med 5:3, 1992.

EDTA chelation therapy for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Medical Letter 36:48 l994.

Eliot RS and Blout SG Jr: Calcium, chelates and digitalis. A clinical study. Am Heart J 62:7, 1961.

Emmerson BT: Chronic lead nephropathy. The diagnostic use of calcium EDTA and the association with gout. Aust Ann Med 12:310, 1963.

Estep HL, Gardner CT Jr, Taylor JP, Minott A and Tucker HStG Jr: Phosphate excretion patterns following intravenous injection of ethylenediaminetetraacetate ((EDTA). J Clin Endocr 25:1385, 1965.


Favre HR and Wing AJ: Simultaneous 51Cr edetic acid, inulin, and endogenous creatinine clearances in 20 patients with renal disease. Brit Med J 1:84, 1968.

Feigen RD, Shannon DC, Reynolds SL, Shapiro LW and Connelly JP: Lead poisoning in
children. Clin Pediat 4:38, 1965.

Fink CW and Baum J: Treatment of calcinosis universalis with chelating agents. Am J Dis Child 105:390, 1963.

Flynn DM: 5-year controlled trial of chelating agents in treatment of thalassaemia major. Arch Dis Child 48:829, 1973.

Foreman H: Pharmacology of Some Useful Chelating Agents. In Seven MJ and Johnson LA (eds): Metal-Binding in Medicine. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1960.

Foreman H: Summary remarks by the chairman. [Proceedings of a conference on biological apects of metal-binding.] Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):257, 1961.

Foreman H: Use of chelating agents in treatment of metal poisoning with special emphsis on lead). Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):191, 1961.

Foreman H: Toxic side effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. J Chron Dis 16:319, 1963.

Foreman H, Vier M and Magee M: The metabolism of C14 labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the rat. J Biol Chem 203:1045, 1953.

Foreman H, Finnegan C and Lushbaugh CC: Nephrotoxic hazard from uncontrolled edathamil calcium-disodium therapy. JAMA 160:1042, 1956.

Foreman H and Trujillo TT: The metabolism of 14C-labelled ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid in human beings. J Lab Clin Med 43:566, 1954.

Forssman O and Nordqvist P: The action in vitro and in vivo od sodium versenate on the phagocytic activity of neutrophile leukocytes. Acta Haemat 31:289, 1964.

Friedel W, Schulz FH and Schröder I: Arteriosclerosis therapy with mucopolysaccharides and EDTA. Deutsch Gesundh 20:1566, 1965.

Fromke VL, Lee MY and Watson CJ: Porphyrin metabolism during Versenate® therapy in lead poisoning. Intoxication from an unusual source. Ann Intern Med 70:1007, 1969.

Fuleihan FJD, Kurban AK, Abboud RT, Beidas-jubran N and Farah FS: An objective evaluation of the treatment of systemic scleroderma with disodium EDTA, pyridoxine and reserpine. Brit J Derm 80:184, 1968.


Ghiringhelli L and Respighi E: The tubular reabsorption of phosphorus during the test of parathyroid stimulation by versenate (test of Kaiser &Ponsold). Atti Acad Med Lombarda 18:191, 1963.

Ghiringhelli L, Marinoni E and Respighi E: Study of the parathyroid function by means of the Kaiser & Ponsold test in a group of thyroidectomized patients. Minerva Med 54:2829, 1963.

Gibbons HL: Edetate disodium calcium, calcium-channel blockers, and heart disease. JAMA 246:1728, 1981.

Godfrey ME: EDTA chelation as a treatment of arteriosclerosis NZ Med J 93:199, 1990.

Godfrey ME, Frackleton JP and Chappell LT: Chelation therapy for intermittent claudication (Letter). Z Med J 107:495, 1994.

Godfrey ME, Agnihotri R, and Strauss A: Chelation and arteriosclerosis. NZ Med J
101(838):21, 1988.

Goldsmith RE, King LR, Zalme E and Bahr GK: Serum calcium homeostasis in radioiodine treated thyrotoxic subjects as measured by ethylenediamine tetraacetate infusion. Acta Endocrin 58:565, 1968.

Gordon GB and Vance RB: EDTA chelation therapy for atherosclerosis: history and mechanisms of action. Osteopath Ann 4:38, 1976.

Gotto AM Jr: Chelation therapy in 1984. Texas Medicine 80:36, 1984.

Gould RG: Metals and chelating agents in relation to atherosclerosis. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):252, 1961.

Grier MT and Meyers DG: So much writing, so little science: A review of 37 years of literature on edetate sodium chelation therapy. Ann Pharmacother 27:1504, 1993.

Guldager B, Jelnes R, Jorgenson SJ, et al: EDTA treatment of intermittent claudication – a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Intern Med 231:261, 1992.

Gutteridge JMC: Ferrous-salt promoted damage to deoxyribose and benzoate, the increased effectiveness of hydroxyl-radical scavengers in the presence of EDTA. Biochem J 243:709, 19987.


Halstead BW: The scientific basis of EDTA chelation therapy. Colton, California, Golden Quill Publishers, 1979.

Hancke C and Flytlie K: Manipulation with EDTA. Ugeskr Laeger 154:2213, 1992.

Hancke C and Flytlie K: Benefits of EDTA chelation therapy on arteriosclerosis. J Adv Med 6:161, 1993.

Hansotia P, Peters H, Bennett M and Brown R: Chelation therapy in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Treatment with EDTA. Ann Otol 78:388, 1969.

Hardy HL: Clinical experience with the use of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the therapy of lead poisoning. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):252,

Harper JW and Gordon GF: Reprints of medical literature on chelation therapy. Los Angeles, American Academy of Medical Preventics, 1975.

Haumont S and Vincent J: Action of calcium versenate on lead fixed in vivo in compact bone. Exp Cell Res 18:404, 1959.

Hausmann E: Changes in plasma phosphate concentration on infusion of calcium gluconate or Na2EDTA. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 134:182, 1970.

Hay DR: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 101(841):122, 1988.

Hay DR: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 101(845):246, 1988.

Heath DA, Knapp MS and Walker WHC: Comparison between inulin and 51Cr-labelled edetic acid for the measurement of glomerular filtration-rate. Lancet 2:1110, 1968.

Heller J and Vostal J: Renal excretion of calcium-disodium-ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid – a new tubular secretory mechanism? Experientia 20:99, 1964.

Herd JK and Vaughan JH: Calcinosis universalis complicating dermatomyositis – its treatment with Na2EDTA. Report of two cases in children. Arthritis Rheum 7:259, 1964.

Holland JF, Danielson E and Sahagian-Edwards A: Use of EDTA in hypercalcemic patients. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 84:359, 1953.

Hösli P: Therapy of scleroderma with the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; a contribution to the toxicology of versenate. Part I. Arzneimittelforschung 10:65, 1960.

Hösli P: Therapy of scleroderma with the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; a contribution to the toxicology of versenate. Part II. Arzneimittelforschung 10:177, 1960.


Jick S and Karsh R: The effect of calcium chelation on cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances. Am J Cardiol 4:287, 1959.

Johnson SAM: Use of the chelating agent edathamil disodium in acrosclerosis, sarcoidosis and other skin conditions with comments on tryptophan metabolism in sarcoidosis. Wisconson Med J 59:651, 1960.

Jonas WB: Meta-analysis of EDTA chelation: math that doesn’t matter. J Adv Med 7:109, 1994.

Jonas WB: Effectiveness of EDTA chelation therapy. Circulation 5:1352, 1995.

Jones KH and Fourman P: Edetic-acid test of parathyroid insufficiency. Lancet 2:119, 1963.

Jones RJ: Chelation therapy (Letter). JAMA 250:672, 1983.

Julian JJ: Pass or Bypass? Chelation Extends Life. Hollywood, Wellness Press, 1981.


Kalliomaki JL, Markkanen TK and Mustonen VA: Serum calcium and phosphorous homeostasis in man studied by means of the sodium EDTA test. Acta Med Scan 170:211, 1961.

Kaman RL, Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW and Walker FM: Effect of EDTA chelation therapy on aortic calcium in rabbits on atherogenic diets; quantitative and histochemical studies. J Adv Med 3:13, 1990.

Kebe SR: ACTH and a chelating agent for schizophrenia. West Med 4:46, 1963.

Klein R and Harris SB: Treatment of scleroderma, sclerodactylia and calcinosis by chelation (EDTA). Am J Med 19:798, 1955.

Kitchell JR, Meltzer LE, and Seven MJ: Potential uses of chelation methods in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 3: 338, 1961.

Kitchell JR, Palmon F Jr, Aytan N, et al: The treatment of coronary artery disease with disodium EDTA. A reappraisal. Am J Card 11:501, 1963.

Kneller LA, Uhl HSM and Brem J: Successful calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate treatment of lead poisoning in an infant. N Engl J Med 252:338, 1955.

Koen A, McCann DS and Boyle AJ: Some in vivo effects of chelation. II. Animal experimentation. J Chron Dis 16:329, 1963.

Konradi MG: Use of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate test for diagnosing latnet forms of hypoparathyroidism. Prob Endokrinol 23:46, 1977.

Kozlov VA and Novikova VM: Calcium ion-dependent immunosuppressive effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Epidemiol Immunobiol 1:69, 1978.


Lamar CP: Chelation therapy of occlusive arteriosclerosis in diabetic patients. Angiology 15:379, 1964.

Lamar CP: Chelation endarterectomy for occlusive atherosclerosis. J Am Geriatrics Soc 15: 272, 1966.

Lamb DJ and Leake DS: The effect of EDTA on the oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Atherosclerosis 94:35, 1992.

Leipzig LJ, Boyle AJ and McCann DS: Case histories of rheumatoid arthritis treated with sodium or magnesium EDTA. J Chron Dis 22:553, 1970.

Leitner SA: Last chance to live. Wade Allen Publishing, Chesterfield, MO, 1980.

Lelievre P and Betz EH: Effect of versene on oxygen consumption of tissues in vitro. C R Soc Biol 155:199, 1961.

Liberman UA, Barzel U, De Vries A and Ellis H: Myositis ossificans traumatica with unusual course. Effect of EDTA on calcium, phosphorus and mangenese excretion. Am J Med Sci 254:35, 1967.

Lochte HL Jr, Ferrebee JW and Thomas ED: The effect of heparin and EDTA on DNA synthesis by marrow in vitro. J Lab Clin Med 55435, 1960.

Lockefeer JH, Hackeng WHL and Birkenhagër JC: Parathyroid hormone secretion in disorders of calcium metabolism studied by means of EDTA. Act Endocr 75:286, 1974.

Lonsdale D: EDTA chelation therapy (Letter). Am J Surg 166:316, 1993.

Luchi RJ, Helwig J Jr and Conn HL Jr: Quinidine txoicity and its treatment. An experimental study. Am Heart J 65:340, 1963.

Lyons RD: Chelation: miracle cure or false hope? Med J Aust 142: 519, 1985.


Magee HR: Chelation therapy for atherosclerosis (Letter). Med J Aust 143:127, 1985.

Magee R: Chelation treatment of atherosclerosis Med J Aust 142:514, 1985.

Malinovska V, Zechmeister A, Brucknerova E et al: Ultrahistochemical study of the effect of glucagon and Chelation III on arterial wall structure after experimental calcification. Folia Morphologica 28:20, 1978.

Marcelle R and Lecomte J: On the cardiovascular activities of the sodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. C R Soc Biol 153:1483, 1959.

Margolis S: Chelation therapy is ineffective for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Alternative Therapies Health Med 1:53, 1995.

Marlow CG and Sheppard G: [51Cr] EDTA, [hydroxymethyl-14C] inulin-T for the determination of glomerular filtration rate. Clin Chim Acta 28:479, 1970.

Marney SR Jr and Des Prez RM: Rabbit platelet injury by soluble antigen and antibody. III. Effects of the sodium and magnesium salts of EDTA and EGTA. J Immun 106:1446, 1971.

Marsh L and Fraser FC: Chelating agents and teratogenesis. (Letter) Lancet 1:846, 1973.

Maxwell GM, Elliot RB and Robertson E: The effect of Na3EDTA-induced hypocalcemia upon the general and coronary hemodynamics of the intact animal. Am Heart J 66:82, 1963.

Mayan H, Salomon O, Pauzner R, et al: EDTA-induced pseudothrombocytopenia. South Med J 85:213, 1992.

McCann DS, Koen Z, Zdybek G and Boyle AJ: Effect of chelation on phosphorus metabolism in experimental atherosclerosis. Circ Res 11:880, 1962.

McCoy JE, Carre IJ and Freeman M: A controlled trial of edathamil calcium disodium in acrodynia. Pediatrics 25:304, 1960.

McDonagh E, Rudolph, CJ, and Cheraskin E: An oculocerebrovasculometric analysis of the improvement in arterial stenosis following EDTA chelation therapy. J Holistic Med 4:21, 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ, and Cheraskin E: The effect of EDTA chelation therapy plus supportive multivitamin-trace mineral supplementation upon renal function: a study in serum creatinine. J Holistic Med 4:146, 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ, and Cheraskin E: Effect of EDTA chelation therapy plus multivitamin trace mineral supplementation upon vascular dynamics: ankle/brachial doppler systolic blood pressure ratio. J Holistic Med 7:16, 1985

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ, and Cheraskin E: The influence of EDTA salts plus multivitamin-trace mineral therapy upon total serum cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Med Hypotheses 9:643, 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ, and Cheraskin E: The homeostatic effect of EDTA with supportive multivitamin trace mineral supplementation upon high-density lipoproteins (HDL). J Osteopath Phys Surg Calf 8: #2, Spring 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ, and Cheraskin E: The effect of intra-venous disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plus supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation upon fasting serum calcium. Med Hypotheses 11:431, 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ, and Cheraskin E: The glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) distribution in EDTA-chelation-eligible patients. J Orthomolecular Psych 12:72, 1983.

McDonagh EW and Rudolph CJ: A Collection of Published Papers Showing the Efficacy of EDTA Chelation Therapy. Gladstone, MD, McDonagh Medical Center, 1991.

McDonagh EW: Chelation Can Cure: How to Reverse Heart Disease, Diabetes, Stroke, High Blood Pressure or Surgery. Kansas City, Platinum Pen Publications, 1983.

McGill WF: The effects of EDTA chelation therapy on plaque calcium and mineral metabolism in atherosclerotic rabbits. Dissertation Abstracts International Vol. 41, No. 04, October 1980.

McGillen M J and Mancini GBJ: Inefficacy of EDTA chelation therapy for coronary atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 318:1618, 1988.

Mehbod H: Treatment of lead intoxication. Combined use of peritoneal dialysis and edetate calcium disodium. JAMA 201:972, 1967.

Meltzer LE: Chelation Therapy. In Seven MJ and Johnson LA (eds): Metalbinding in Medicine. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1960.

Meltzer LE, Palmon FJ, and Kitchell JR: Hypoglycemia induced by disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid. Lancet 2:637, 1961.

Meltzer LE, Kitchell JR, and Palmon FJ: The long term use, side effects, and toxicity of disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Am J Med Sci 242:11, 1961.

Mischol HR and Wildbolz R: Instrumental chemolysis of renal calculi: Indications and dangers. J Urol 105:607, 1971.

Moel DI and Kunar K: Reversible nephrotoxic reactions to a combined 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol and calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid regimen to asymptomatic children with elevated blood lead levels. Pediatrics 70:259, 1982.

Moncrieff AA, Koumides OP, Clayton BE, Patrick AD, Renwick AGC and Roberts GE: Lead poisoning in children. Arch Dis Child 39:1, 1964.

Müller SA, Brunstig LA and Winkelmann RK: The treatment of scleroderma with the new chelating agent edathamil. Arch Dermatol 3:305, 1962.

Mongan ES: The treatment of progressive systemic sclerosis with disodium edetate. Arthitis Rheum 8:1145, 1965.

Montgomery MR: Advances in medical fraud: chelation therapy replaces Laetrile. J Florida Med Assoc 73:681, 1986.

Morgan JM: Chelation therapy in lead nephropathy. South Med J 68:1001, 1973.

Myers HL: Topical chelation therapy for varicose pigmentation. Angiology 17:66, 1966.


Nakano J, Cole B and Ishii T: Effects of disodium EDTA on the cardiovascular responses to prostaglandin E1. Experientia 24:808, 1968.

Nayler WG: Ventricular arrhythmias following the administration of Na2EDTA. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 137:5, 1962.

Nedergaard OA and Vagne A: Effect of EDTA and other chelating agents on norepinephrine uptake by rabbit aorta in vitro. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 11:87, 1968.

Neldner KH, Winklemann RK and Perry HO: Scleroderma. An evaluation of treatment with disodium edetate. Arch Derm 86:305, 1962.

Nguyen-The-Minh: Treatment of digitalis intoxication with EDTA Na2. Presse Med 71:2385, 1963.

Nikitina EK and Abramova MA: Treatment of atherosclerosis with Trilone B (EDTA). Kardiologiia 12:137, 1972.

Nodine JH: Edetic acid therapy. (Letter) JAMA 212:628, 1970.


Offer GW: The antagonistic action of magnesium ions and ethylenediaminetetraacetate on myosin A ATPase (potassium activated). Biochim Biophys Acta 89:566, 1964.

Oliver LD, Mehta R and Saries HE: Acute renal failure following administration of ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Tex Med 80:40, 1984.

Olszewer E and Carter JP: EDTA Chelation therapy: a retrospective study of 2,870 patients. J Adv Med 27:197, 1989.

Olszewer E and Carter JP: EDTA chelation therapy in chronic degenerative disease. Med Hypotheses 27(1):41, 1988.

Olszewer E, Sabbag FC, and Carter JO: A pilot double-blind study of sodium-magnesium EDTA in peripheral vascular disease. J Natl Med Assoc 82:173, 1990.

Olwin JH and Koppel JL: Reduction of elevated plasma lipid levels in atherosclerosis following EDTA therapy. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 128:1137, 1968.

Ontka JA: Physical and chemical changes in isolated chylomicrons: prevention by EDTA. J Lipid Res 11:367, 1970.

Oser BL: Observations on the chronic ingestion of a chelating agent by rats and dogs. Fed Proc 20(Suppl 10):158, 1961.

Oser BL, Oser M and Spencer HC: Safety evaluation studies of calcium EDTA. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 5:142, 1963.


Painter JT and Morrow EJ: Porphyria. Its manifestations and treatment with chelating agents. Texas State J Med 55:811, 1959.

Parfitt AM: Study of parathyroid function in man by EDTA. J Clin Endocr 29:569, 1969.
Patterson R: Chelation therapy and Uncle John. CMAJ 140(7):829, 1989.

Pavek K, Drinal J and Selecky FV: Circulatory effects of disodium edetate in digoxin-induced ventricular tachycardia. Cardiologia 50:297, 1967.

Payne BA and Pierre RV: Pseudothrombocytopenia: a laboratory artifact with potentially serious consequences. Mayo Clinic Proc 59:123, 1984.

Payne JM and Sansom BF: The relative toxicity in rats of disodium ethylene diamine tetra-acetate, sodium oxalate and sodium citrate. J Physiol 170:613, 1964.

Peng CF, Kane JJ, Murphy ML and Straub KD: Abnormal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of ischemic myocardium reversed by Ca2+-chelating agents. J Mole Cell Cardiol 9:897, 1977.

Pentel P, Jorgensen C, and Somerville J: Chelation therapy for the treatment of atherosclerosis, an appraisal. Minn Med Feb:101, 1984.

Perry HM Jr: Chelation therapy in circulatory and sclerosing diseases. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):254, 1961.

Perry HM Jr and Schroeder HA: Depression of cholesterol levels in human plasma following ethylenediamine tetraacetate and hydralazine. J Chron Dis 2:520, 1955.

Perry HM Jr and Schroeder HA: Lesions resembling vitamin B complex deficiency and urinary loss of zinc produced by ethylenediamine tetraacetate. Am J Med 22:168, 1957.

Peters HA, Eichman PL and Reese HH: Therapy of acute, chronic and mixed hepatic porphyria patients with chelating agents. Neurology 8:621, 1958.

Peters HA, Johnson SAM, Cam S, Oral S, Müftü Y and Ergene T: Hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria: Effect of chelation on the disease, porphyrin and metal metabolism. Am J Med Sci 251:314, 1966.

Peters HA: Trace minerals, chelating agents and the porphyrias. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):227, 1961.

Peterson GR: Adverse effects of chelation therapy. (Letter) JAMA 250:2926, 1983.

Petrovic L, Stanovic M, Savicevic M and Poleti D: Aerosol inhaltion of CaNa2E.D.T.A. (mosatil) by workers constantly exposed to lead poisoning. Brit J Indust Med 17:201, 1960.

Platts-Mills A: EDTA chelation therapy. NZ Med J, 101(849):465, l988.

Popovici A, Geschickter CF, Reinovsky A and Rubin M: Experimental control of serum calcium levels in vivo. Proc Soc Exper Biol & Med 74:415, 1950.

Price JM: Some effects of chelating agents on tryptophan metabolism in man. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):223, 1961.

Pullman TN, Lavender AR and Forland M: Synthetic chelating agents in clinical medicine. Ann Rev Med 14:175, 1963.


Rathmann KL and Golightly LK: Chelation therapy of atherosclerosis. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 18:1000, 1984.

Raymond JZ and Gross PR: EDTA: preservative dermatitis. Arch Derm 100:436, 1969.

Remagen W, Hiller FK and Sanz CM: Metabolic changes in experimental poisoning with ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid. Arzneimittelforschung 11:1097, 1961.

Renoux M and Mikol C: Chelation. Presse Med 72:3117, 1964.

Reuber MD: Accentuation of Ca edetate nephrosis by cortisone. Arch Path 76:382, 1963.

Reuber MD and Bradley JE: Acute versenate nephrosis occurring as a result of treatment for lead intoxication. JAMA 174:263, 1960.

Reuber MD: Severe nephrosis in older male rats given calcium disodium edetate. Arch Environ Health 15:141, 1967.

Reuber MD: Calcium disodium edetate nephrosis in female rats of varying ages. J Path 97:335, 1969.

Reuber MD and Schmieler GC: Edetate kidneys lesions in rats. Arch Environ Health 5:430, 1962.

Reuber MD: Hepatic lesions in young rats given calcium disodium edetate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 11:321, 1967.

Reuter H, Niemeyer G and Gross R: The distribution of EDTA and citrate in blood and plasma. Throm Diath Haemorrh 19:213, 1968.

Rieders F, Dunnington WG and Brieger H: The efficacy of edathamil calcium disodium in the treatment of occupational lead poisoning. Indust Med 24:195, 1955.

Riordan HD, Cheraskin E, Dirks M, et al: EDTA chelation/hypertension study: clinical patterns as judged by the Cornell Medical Index Questionnaire. J Orthomolelcular Med 4:91, 1989.

Riordon HD, Cheraskin E, Dirks M, et al: Another look at renal function and the EDTA treatment process. J Ortho Med 2:185, 1987.

Riordon HD, Cheraskin E, Dirks M, et al: Electrocardiographic changes associated with EDTA chelation therapy. J Adv Med 1:191, 1988.

Robinson DM: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 74:750, 1982.

Rosenbaum JL, Mason D and Seven MJ: The effect of disodium EDTA on digitalis intoxication. Am J Med Sci 240:77, 1960.

Rossi EC: Effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate upon platelet glycolysis. J Lab Clin Med 69:204, 1967.

Rotota MC and Sanowski R: Acute intermittent porphyria. J Med Soc New Jersey 61:101, 1964.

Rubin M, Gignac S, Bessman SP and Belknap E: Enhancement of lead excretion in humans with EDTA. Science 117:659, 1953.

Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW and Barber RK: The effect of EDTA chelation on serum iron. J Adv Med 4:39, 1991.

Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW and Barber RK: A non-surgical approach to obstructive carotid stenosis using EDTA chelation. J Adv Med 4:157, 1991.

Rudolph CJ, Samuels RT and McDonagh EW: Visual field evidence of macular degeneration reversal using a combination of EDTA and multiple vitamin and trace mineral therapy. J Adv Med 7:203, 1994.

Rutman JZ, Melttzer LE, Kitchell JR, et al: Effect of metal ions on in vitro gluconeogensis in rat kidney cortex slices. Am J Physiol 208:841, 1965.

Sachs HK, Blanksma LA, Murray EF and O’Connell MJ: Ambulatory treatment of lead poisoning: report of 1,155 cases. Pediatrics 46:389, 1970.

Schroeder HA: A practical method for the reduction of plasma cholesterol in man. J Chron Dis 4:461, 1956.

Schroeder HA, Menhard EM and Perry HM Jr: Antihypertensive effects of metal binding agents. J Lab & Clin Med 23:416, 1955.

Schubert J: Chelation in medicine. Sci Am 214:40, 1966.

Schwartz SL, Hayes JR, Ide RS, et al: Studies of the neohrotoxicity of ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid, Biomed Pharm 15:377, 1966.

Schwartz SL, Johnson CB, and Doolan PD: Study of the mechanism of renal vacuologenesis induced in the rat by ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Mol Pharm 6:54, 1970.

Schwartz SL, Johnson CB, Hayes JR and Doolan PD: Subcellular localization of ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the proximal tubular cell by the rat kidney. Biochem Pharmacol 16:2413, 1967.

Scott PJ: Chelation therapy for degenerative vascular disease. N Z Med J 95:538, 1982.

Scott PJ. Chelation therapy: evolution or devolution of a nostrum? N Z Med J 101:109, 1988.

Sehnert KW, Claque AF, and Cheraskin E: The improvement in renal function following EDTA chelation and multivitamin trace mineral therapy: A study in creatinine clearance. Med Hypotheses 15:301, 1984.

Selander S: Treatment of lead poisoning. A comparison between the effects of sodium calcium edetate and penicillamine administered orally and intravenously. Brit J Indust Med 24:272, 1967.

Seto DSY and Freeman JM: Lead nephropathy in childhood. Am J Dis Child 107:337, 1964.

Seven MJ: Observations on the dosage of intravenous chelating agents. Antibiotic Med 5:251, 1958.

Shibata S: Toxicological studies of EDTA salt (sodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate. Folia Pharmacol Japonica 52:113, 1956, and Chem Abst 51:9918, 1957.

Shrand H: Treatment of lead poisoning with intramuscular edathamil calcium-disodium. Lancet 1:310, 1961.

Silverglade A: Chelation clinics. Chest 87:274 1985.

Sloth-Nielsen J, Guldager B, Mouritzen C, et al: Arteriographic findings in EDTA chelation therapy on peripheral arteriosclerosis. Am J Surg 162:122, 1991.

Soffer A: Chelation Therapy. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1964.

Soffer A: Chelation therapy for arteriosclerosis. JAMA 233:1206, 1975.

Soffer A: Chihuahuas and laetrile, chelation therapy, and honey from Boulder, Colo. Arch Intern Med 136:865, 1976.

Soffer A: Chelation clinics, an abuse of the physician’s freedom of choice. Chest 86:157, 1984.

Soffer A and Toribara T: Changes in serum and spinal fluid calcium effected by disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. J Lab Clin Med 58:542, 1961.

Soffer A, Toribara T and Sayman A: Myocardial responses to chelation. Brit Heart J 23:690, 1961.

Soffer A, Toribara T, Moore-Jones D and Weber D: Clinical applications and untoward reactions and untoward reactions of chelation in cardiac arrhythmias Arch Inten Med 106:824, 1960.

Spence JD: Chelation therapy for intermittent claudication. ACP Journal Club, July/August page 8, 1992.

Spencer H, Greenberg J, Berger E et al: Studies of the effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in hypercalcemia. J Lab Clin Med 47:29, 1956.

Spencer H, Vankinscott V, Lewin I and Laszlo D: Removal of calcium in man by ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid. A metabolic study. J Clin Invest 31:1023, 1952.

Stacey BD and Thorborn GD: Chromium-51 ethylenediaminetetraacetate for estimation of glomerular filtration rate. Science 152:1076, 1966.

Stamp TCB, Stacey TE and Rose GA: Comparison of glomerular filtration rate measurements using inulin, 51Cr-EDTA, and a phosphate infusion technique. Clin Chim Acta 30:351, 1970.

Stamp TCB: 51Cr-edetic-acid clearance and G.F.R. (Letter) Lancet 2:1348, 1968.

Stecker RH and Bennett M: Chelation in clinical otosclerosis. Arch Otolaryng 70:627, 1959.

Steven FS: The effect of chelating agents on collagen interfibrillar matrix interactions in connective tissue. Biochim Biophys Acta 140:522, 1967.

Stevenson JG and Covington TR: Chelation therapy in atherosclerosis. Ann Intern Med 97:789, 1982.

Surawicz B, MacDonald MG, Kaljot V, et al: Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias with salts of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Am Heart J 58:493, 1959.

Surawicz B: Use of the chelating agent, EDTA, in digitalis intoxication and cardiac arrhythmias. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2:432, 1960.

Swenerton H and Hurley LS: Teratogenic effects of a chelating agent and their prevention by zinc. Science 173:62, 1971.

Szekely P and Wynne NA: Effects of calcium chelation on digitalis-induced cardiac arrhythmias. Brit Heart J 25:589, 1963.


Tate SS: Effect of metal ions and EDTA on the activity of rabbit liver fructose 1,6-diphosphatase Biochim Biophys Res Commun 24:662, 1966.

Teisinger J: Biochemical responses to provocative chelation by edetate disodium calcium. Arch Environ Health 23:280, 1971.

Thompson LJ: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 103:326, 1990.

Timmermann A and Kallistratos G: Chemotherapy in nephrolithiasis. Isr J Med Sci 7:689, 1971.

Timmermann A and Kallistratos G: Modern aspects of chemical dissolution of human renal calculi by irrigation. J Urol 95:469, 1966.

Traub YM, Samuel R, Lubin E, Lewitus Z and Rosenfeld JB: A comparison between the clearances of inulin, endogenous creatinine, and 51Cr-EDTA. Isr J Med Sci 9:487, 1973.

Trowbridge JP and Walker M: Chelation Therapy: The Key to Unclogging Your Arteries, Improving Oxygenation, Treating Vision Problems. 3rd Ed. Marble Falls, Texas, Better Health Booklet Service, 1990.

Tsang RC, Chen I-W and McEnerg P: Parathyroid function tests with EDTA infusions in infancy and childhood. J Pediatr 88:250, 1976.


Uhl HSM, Brown HH, Zlatkis A, Zak B, Myers GB and Boyle AJ: Effect of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid on cholesterol metabolism in rabbits. Am J Clin Path 23:1226, 1950.


Van der Schaar P: Exercise tolerance in chelation therapy. J Adv Med 2:563, 1989.

van Rij AM, Solomon C, Packer SGK, et al: Chelation therapy for intermittent claudication. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 90:1194, 1994.

van Rij AM, Solomon C, Packer SGK and Hopkins WG: [Chelation therapy] Response (Letter). Circulation 5:1350, 1995.

van Rij AM, Solomon C, Packer SGK and Hopkins WG: [Effectiveness of EDTA chelation therapy] Response (Letter). Circulation 5:1352, 1995.

Vogt W and Cottier H: Nekrotisierende Nephrose nach Behandlung einer subakutchronischen Bleivergiftung mit Versenat in hohen Dosen. Schweiz Med Wchnschr 87:665, 1957.


Walker FMcG: The effects of EDTA chelation therapy on plaque calcium and mineral metabolism in atherosclerotic rabbits. Physiology (Dissertation Abstracts International) Vol. 41, No. 04, 1980.

Walker M: How to Prevent or Reverse Hardening of the Arteries in Chelation Therapy. M Evans Co, Inc., New York, 1981.

Walker M: The Miracle Healing Power of Chelation Therapy. Canfield, Ohio, Fischer Publishing, 1984.

Walker M: The Chelation Way: The Complete Book of Chelation Therapy. Garden City Park, NY, Avery Publishing, 1990.

Walker M: Chelation therapy: how to prevent or reverse hardening of the arteries. Atlanta, ’76 Press, 1987.

Walker M and Gordon G: The chelation Answer. Atlanta, ’76 Press, 1983.

Wartman A, Lampe TL, McCann, DS, et al: Plaque reversal with MgEDTA in experimental atherosclerosis: Elastin and collagen metabolism. J Athero Res 7:331, 1967.

What is chelation therapy for arteriosclerosis? Br Med J 285: 1982.

Whitaker J: You have alternatives to bypass surgery. Health Healing Lett Feb, 1993.

Whitaker JA, Austin W and Nelson JD: Edathamil calcium disodium (Versenate) diagnostic test for lead poisoning. Pediatrics 29:384, 1962.

Wilder LW, DeJode LR, Milstein, SW, et al: Mobilization of atherosclerotic plaque calcium with EDTA utilizing the isolation-perfusion principle. Surgery 52:793, 1962.

Williams JD, Matthews GA and Judd AW: Oral calcium disodium versenate in treatment of lead poisoning. Brit J Indust Med 19:211, 1962.

Winder PR and Curtis AC: Edathamil in the treatment of scleroderma and calcinosis cutis. Arch Derm 82:732, 1960.

Wirebaugh SR and Geraets DR: Apparent failure of edetic acid chelation therapy for the treatment of coronary atherosclerosis. DICP Ann Pharm 24:22, 1990.

Woods SM, Peters HA and Johnson SAM: Chelation therapy in cutaneous porphyria. A review and report of a five-year recovery. Arch Derm 84:920, 1961.

Wynn JE, Riet B, Van’t and Borzelleca JF: The toxicity and pharmacodynamics of EGTA: oral administration to rats and comparisons with EDTA. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 16:807, 1970.


Yang WC: Stimulatory effect of EDTA on cardiac mitochondrial respiration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun


22.2 Other references about EDTA chelation therapy

Aluminium and Alzheimer’s Disease: The Science that Describes the Link. (C. Exley, Ed.) 2001. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Aluminum in Chemistry, Biology and Medicine. M. Nicolini, P. Zatta, B. Corain, (eds), 1992, Raven Press, New York.

Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders. M. Nicolini, P.Zatta, B. Corain (Eds.)1993, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Non-Neuronal Cells in Alzheimer’s Disease. P.Zatta e M. Nicolini, (Eds), 1995, World Scientific, Singapore, London

Aluminum Toxicity in Infants’ Health and Disease. P. Zatta and.C. Alfrey (Eds), 1997, World Scientific, Singapore, London.

Aluminum in Chemistry, Biology and Medicine. Workshop on Clinical, Cellular, Molecular and Analytical Aspects of Aluminopathies. Life Chemistry Reports, Harwood Academic Publ. 1993, Switzerland.

Aluminum in Biogy and Medicine. Ciba Foundation Symposium, J. Wiley & sons, 1992, Chichester, UK.

Recent Topics in Aluminium Chemistry. Coordination Chemistry Reviews.P. Zatta (Ed.). 2002.

Metals and the Brain: From Neurochemistry to Neurodegeneration. Brain Research Bulletin (Special issue) P. Zatta, (Ed.), 2001, vol. 52(2) pp.125-325.

Harrison: Principle of Internal Medicine

U. Teodori: Trattato di patologia medica

S. Corsello: “The ageless woman"

T. Chappel: “Question from the heart"

E. Cranton: “ Bypassing by pass”

F. Verzella, et al : “Nutrizione, Comportamento & Salute”


22.3 Cellfood

Potenziale utilità di Deutrosulfazyme® nel trattamento dell’asma
Eugenio Luigi Iorio

DEUTROSULFAZYME ®: un potente antiossidante
E.L. Iorio*, L. Bianchi** e A. Storti***

Il doppio volto dell’ossigeno e il paradosso Cellfood®
Pool Antiossidante, Sinergico, Sistemico
di Eugenio Luigi Iorio MD, PhD Presidente Osservatorio Internazionale Stress Ossidativo, Parma


22.4 Other important references

Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis. 17 February 2006.
Christopher Exley(1), Godwin Mamutse(2), Olga Korchazhkina(3), Eleanor Pye(2), Stanislav Strekopytov(1), Anthony Polwart(4), Clive Hawkins(2).

(1)   Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University

(2) – Department of Neurology, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.

(3) – Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.

(4) – School of Life Sciences, Huxley Building, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.

The beneficial effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity.
Jarmila Prochazkova(1), Ivan Sterzl(2), Hana Kucerova(1), Jirina Bartova1 & Vera DM Stejskal(3)(4)

(1)  The Institute of Dental Research 1st Medical Faculty Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC

(2)  The Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC


(4) Associate Professor of Immunology, University of Stockholm, SWEDEN 

Methyl-B12: Myth, Masterpiece, Or Miracle?
Dr. Neubrander, www.drneubrander.com